anti depression medicine in saudi arabia

1988, 77 (3): 280-282. But screening for these potential comorbidities in a hospital’s accident and emergency department has seldom been undertaken, particularly in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere in the Middle East. Eisenberg L: Treating depression and anxiety in the primary care setting. Antidepressants help to relieve symptoms of depression such as low mood, irritability, feelings of worthlessness, restlessness, anxiety, and difficulty in sleeping. In conclusion, the majority of pharmacists are violating the pharmacy law without recognizing the potential harm they’re imposing the community to in Saudi Arabia. Similarly home-makers were estimated to be only half of the females in the study. KAU: King Abdulaziz University. Article  Flamerzi S, Al-Emadi N, Kuwari MGA, Ghanim IM, Ahmad A: Prevalence and determinants of depression among primary health care attendees in Qatar 2008. Simon GE, VonKorff M, Piccinelli M, Fullerton C, Ormel J: An international study of the relation between somatic symptoms and depression. Patients exhibiting depressive symptoms on the basis of PHQ9 were 49.9%, of which 31% were mild, 13.4% moderate, 4.4% moderate-severe and 1.0% severe cases. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. J Fam Pract. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. I hope to go ahead and help the medical field as much as possible. Patients between 18–65 years, who attended primary care centers for their regular visits and agreed to participate, were included in this study. Ltd. Website Designing Company India, Herbal Anti Depressants Medicine In Saudi Arabia. Herbal Anti Depressants Medicine Manufacturers in Saudi Arabia - Hishimo Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Médecin urologue sexologue Hopital universitaire international Cheikh Zaid ‏فبراير 2019 - ‏مايو 2019 4 شهور. The primary objective of this study was to estimate point prevalence of screened depression in primary health care settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on the basis of screening instruments. At the end, I would like to thank all the people who participated in the research for their patience and kindness. 2010, 8 (2): 3-7. The following essential data were used from the current study to insert in calculations for cost-analysis: Percentage of males and females in the study, age range of patients, who were primarily adults in their productive life 18–65 years, marital status, and percentage of housewives. This difference was used to conduct sensitivity analysis, to come up with conservative estimates and other possible scenarios. 2005, 4: CD002792. Journal of Public Health in Africa. For instance, Screening of Depression among Patients in Family Medicine in Southeastern Saudi Arabia found that 12% of the screened patients suffered from depression.,,,,,,,, 2003, 289 (23): 3135-3144. Mumford DB, Saeed K, Ahmad I, Latif S, Mubbashar MH: Stress and psychiatric disorder in rural Punjab. Gender and higher level of education were found to be significantly associated with screened depression. Another reason of this variation could be due to use of different scales for of screening depression in the studies, e.g. Majority … I wish success to me and everyone .. and help as much as possible. For every person who is walking in the PHC clinics, over 300 SAR ($80) can be saved per person per year, if screened and subsequently treated if required. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Completed forms were forwarded to the data entry clerk, who entered the data in IBM-SPSS version 20. Similarly, if it is assumed that treatment costs would go up by say 50%, as more patients are likely to received medical treatment for depression as screening becomes common practice, it is also assumed simultaneously that it would reduce indirect losses in productivity by a certain percentage, say 50%, as treated patients are less likely to be absent from work and coupled with reduced risk of suicide, it is estimated that over half a million SAR ($130,800) can be saved per thousand persons screened in the primary care clinics. Secondary objectives include exploring association of screened depression with some risk factors, comparing screening questionnaires PHQ-2 and PHQ-9, conducting cost analysis for depression and estimating possible cost-savings of screening for depression. Patients who had preexisting depression or were on anti-depressants and/or refused to participate in this study, were excluded. This study examines the attitudes to depression in a sample of men and women in Saudi Arabia, a major country in the Middle East with a … Am Fam Physician. The PHQ-9 scores were used along with various demographic variables, for comparisons, using statistical tests including Chi-square, Mann–Whitney Test, and Kurskal-Wallis Test. Sweden from manufacturers registered within the Kingdom's Ministry of Health C. FDA-approved drug entities from manufacturers not registered with the Saudi Ministry of Health, but available in USA; Canada, UK, or. BMJ. Ali BS, Rahbar MH, Naeem S, Tareen AL, Gul A, Samad L: Prevalence of and factors associated with anxiety and depression among women in a lower middle class semi-urban community of Karachi, Pakistan. Correlation between PHQ-2 & PHQ-9 scores. Ann Intern Med. I would like to express appreciation and great thanks to Dr. Ali Al-Farhan, Head of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City and Dr. Mohammed Al-Ateeq, Residency Program Director, Family Medicine and Primary Health Care Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City for their support and cooperation. Indexed in MEDLINE/Index Medicus (National Library of Medicine) available through PubMed, PubMed Central, Europe PubMed Central, PubMed Central Canada, SCOPUS, EMR Index Medicus, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), BIOBASE, and Thomson ISI in Science Citation Index Expanded online at ISI Web … Elle s’adresse aux patients, aux professionnels de santé mais aussi aux aidants. 1999, 341 (18): 1329-1335. Barrett B, Byford S, Knapp M: Evidence of cost-effective treatments for depression: a systematic review. No local study has noted this relationship previously or one found no differences between being literate or illiterate [21]. Springer Nature. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (October 2017) Vol. Individuals and the society as a whole are stressed in trying to adapt to pace of modernization. General medicines, such as painkillers, cough medicine and eye drops, are widely available in supermarkets and large stores. Comparing our study results with a study done in United States, we found our rates to be higher across the board; mild cases (31% vs 9.9%), moderate (13.4% vs 3.7%), moderate to severe cases (4.4% vs 1.4%), and severe (1% vs 0.5%) [52]. Psychotherapy was not added to the costs, due to infrequent availability of the service in the region, and variability in practice which might have made cost estimates fluctuate unreasonably. Luni FK, Ansari B, Jawad A, Dawson A, Baig SM: Prevalence of depression and anxiety in a village in Sindh. Luppa M, Heinrich S, Angermeyer MC, Konig HH, Riedel-Heller SG: Cost-of-illness studies of depression: a systematic review. Abbreviations. Part of PubMed  2009, 54 (10): 891-893. A community survey. Of the screened depressed, mild were 31%, moderately depressed were 13.4%, moderate to severe 4.4% and severe were 1% (Table 2). Chisholm D, Sanderson K, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Saxena S: Reducing the global burden of depression: population-level analysis of intervention cost-effectiveness in 14 world regions. In Saudi Arabia, prevalence has been estimated in several studies, with rates varying in different populations, age groups, times, and geographic locations. The PHQ-2 and PHQ-9 (Table 1) were analyzed in terms of calculating the severity scores for each question, for presence of depression symptoms over the last 2 weeks. Corresponding Author. BetterMedicine. Verbal and written consent were obtained from the respondents, clarifying the main purpose of the study, the importance of the respondent views, thanking in advance and assuring strict confidentiality of the information. BMC Psychiatry Saudi Arabia has been ranked among the 26 best countries in providing high quality healthcare. 10-05143-EF-2; December 2009 [cited July 12, 2011]; Available from: Patients without education were assisted by an Arabic speaking nurse, who read out the questionnaire to the patient, and documented responses. The cost analysis results are shown in Table 4. Article  Depression scores were significantly associated with female gender (p-value 0.049), and higher educational level (p-value 0.002). Medhat M. Bassiony M.B.B.Ch, M.Sc, M.D. Diyya: The Supreme Judicial Council. Depression has multiple underlying risk factors such as chronic medical illness, stress, chronic pain, family history, female gender, low income, job loss, substance abuse, low self-esteem, lack of social support, past history, being single, divorced or widowed, traumatic brain injury, and younger age [4]. Diclofenac products were amongst top four drugs from 2010 to 2015. Lifetime risk of suicide varies between 4-15% of patients with major depression, and up to 3.6% of the depressed patients with or without receiving treatment in primary care for major depression are likely to commit suicide every year [46]. No Saudi studies regarding the cost of treatment, lost productivity and/or monetary benefit of screening for depression were found upon literature review. J Family Community Med. A total loss due to depression was around 1.62 million SAR per 1000 persons screened ($431,733). R = 0.79, R2 = 0.62, F Statistic = 780.5, p-value <0.001. 1996, 168 (3): 299-307. In addition we did not use gold standard diagnostic criteria such as DSM IV for major depressive disorder rather relied on cutoff of PHQ-9 scores of ≥ 5 for point prevalence estimates for screened depression and score of ≥ 10 for cost-analysis estimates of those who may require treatment. 2002, 23 (6): 721-724. Moreover, there are no patents relating to the content of the manuscript. statement and Determination of the prevalence of stress and to identify the risk factors of stress among Saudi medical students at Faculty of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. References. Nearly half of the adults walking into primary care clinics had depressive symptoms, in our study. Nearly half of the patients visiting primary care have some depressive symptoms, which require further exploration into their psychiatric history. 2003, 64 (12): 1465-1475. 1999, 282: 1737-1744. On the contrary, a Cochrane review found that routine depression screening had minimal effect on the management or outcomes of depression after six or 12 months of follow-up [32]. N Engl J Med. Depression and anxiety are prevalent psychiatric comorbidities that are known to have a negative impact on a patient’s general prognosis. 2011, 39 (8): 857-863. Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Kroenke K: Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIMEMD - the PHQ primary care study. DOUGLAS M, MAURER DM, Carl R: Screening for depression. Superior Product Quality, Exceptional Customer Support. Stewart WF, Ricci JA, Chee E, Hahn SR, Morganstein D: Cost of lost productive work time among US workers with depression. J Affect Disord. and Nease et al., found that one time screening with PHQ-9 is cost effective rather than the annual and periodic screening [38, 40]. The survey forms were distributed and collected between 1st of June, 2012 till 31th of August, 2012. Seeking psychiatric help is still considered as a stigma in the regional society. Depression. Hishimo Pharmaceuticals Pvt. To further satisfy our needs to simplify, we explored the use of PHQ-2 by correlating with PHQ-9. PubMed  Depression in Saudi Arabia. In order to estimate indirect costs due to depression, the loss in productivity was estimated based on available data, that on the average, a depressed individual is absent from work no less than 18 days per year (rounded up to 20 workdays which is equivalent to one month of work), a care-giver for the depressed patient also takes 10 workdays off, and in addition, the depressed individual may show up for work, yet not work, an estimated loss of 11 days/year attributed to Presenteeism [47, 48]. Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), P.O. J Gen Intern Med. [49]. 2012, Available from: Gen Hosp Psychiatry. Employees Corner. 1995, 6 (2): 162-175. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Data were collected using PHQ-2 and PHQ-9 Arabic version validated questionnaires for depression screening [42]. In Qatar, the prevalence is 27.8% [16]. The ideal blend of "Ancient knowledge of Medicine based on Natural and Holistic Living" with "Modern Scientific Research and Validation Techniques. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. In our study we also found significant relationship of depressive symptoms with higher level of education. housekeeping, cooking and babysitting. It is also recommended to increase the awareness of benefits of early diagnosis of patients to prevent major form of depression and cost saving of health system. PHQ 9 and PHQ 2 scores were also positively correlated to ‘impact on daily living’ with R = 0.49, R2 = 0.24, F Statistic = 150.3, p-value <0.001, and R = 0.42, R2 = 0.18, F Statistic = 102.2, p-value <0.001 respectively, with regression equations PHQ-9 = 3.6 + 4.2 (Q-10), and PHQ-2 = 1 + 1.2 (Q-10). Shim RS, Baltrus P, Ye J, Rust G: Prevalence, treatment, and control of depressive symptoms in the United States: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. There is also a growing role and increased participation from the private sector in the provision of health care services. J Affect Disord. BMC Psychiatry 14, 190 (2014). An extending thanks for every Nurse or Unit assistant at National Guard Primary Care Centers for their great help and assistance. Being one of the trustworthy Herbal Anti Depressants Medicine Exporters and Suppliers in Saudi Arabia, we also provide timely delivery of the medicines to your doorstep. Abdul Wahid et al., conducted their study in Sharurah, Southeastren region of Saudi Arabia, which is generally considered a rural area compared to the capital city, Riyadh. Criteria for diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder based on DSM IV, was not used as gold standard or validation of PHQ-9 cutoff in this study, as the purpose of the study was to assess the value of screening instrument for depression in primary care setting, and capturing as many adult patients with depressive symptoms as reasonably possible. Also, Saudi Arabia is the only Arab country to be part of the G-20 major economies. This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdul Aziz Medical City-National Guard (KAMC-NG) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in three large primary care centers, serving a population having nearly 60 thousand adults. PubMed  2011, 24 (1): 33-38. Despite several studies that have shown benefit of early diagnosis and cost-savings of up to 80%, physicians in primary care setting continue to miss out on 30-50% of depressed patients in their practices. Professionals such as psychologists and behavior therapists are even less. Arroll B, Khin N, Kerse N: Screening for depression in primary care with two verbally asked questions: cross sectional study. Nease DE, Maloin JM: Depression screening: a practical strategy. Also, recently AI has been involved in review and revising data and manuscript. Social anxiety disorder and depression in Saudi Arabia. This study was approved by King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh. In a recent study, Van den Berg et al. Al Qahtani et al., in Asir reported a 27% prevalence of depression in the year 2008 [21]. The indirect costs due to lost productivity came around 1.3 million SAR per year ($346,667) for a thousand persons screened in primary health care. The severity score of PHQ-2 was calculated and ranged between 0–6 points. Pomerantz JM: Screening for Depression in Primary Care Medscape News. For conservative estimates in calculations, the suicide incidence rate was reduced to 1% of the patients with moderate-severe symptoms of depression (0.2% of total), screened in this study. The cost-analysis showed savings of up to 500 SAR ($133) per adult patient screened once a year. Faris EA, Hamid AA: Hidden and conspicuous psychiatric morbidity in Saudi primary health care. Moderate or severe depression in our study totaled around 19%, which is a little higher than 12% reported by Abdul Wahid et al., in 2011 in primary care settings, but closer to reported by Becker et al., at 20% in 2002 [22, 24] and by El Rufaie et al., 25 years ago at 17% [20]. Board Eligible Resident, Family Medicine Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City-National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Consultant Community Medicine, Family Medicine Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City-National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Family Medicine Department, CoDirector- National & Gulf Center for Eveidance Based Health Practice, King Abdulaziz Medical City-National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Staff physician, Family Medicine Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City-National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, You can also search for this author in Google Scholar, Gilbody S, House AO, Sheldon TA: Screening and case finding instruments for depression. Several studies have shown that prevalence expected to be less in rural area comparing to urban area [11, 15]. The PHQ-9 is valid, takes two to five minutes to complete [4, 37, 38]. Our study has several limitations such as volunteer bias of including only those agreeing to participate, conducting study in summer so seasonal depression could not be included, based on primary care settings with more female and sick visitors thereby lacking generalizability, and cost estimates had no long term component and were based on several assumptions. Nearly 60% of patients had high school education, illiterate were 94 (19.7%), and those with degree above high school were 96 (20.1%). 1999, 14 (9): 739-747. For PHQ-2, presence or absence of depression was based on a score of 3 and above out of 6 on the screening instrument [44]. Terms and Conditions, Whooley MA, Avins AL, Miranda J, Browner WS: Case-finding instruments for depression. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB: The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. The point prevalence of screened depression is high in primary care visitors in Saudi Arabia. Valenstein M, Vijan S, Zeber JE, Boehm K, Buttar A: The cost-utility of screening for depression in primary care. 2003, 52 (2): 118-124. Between 45-95% (overall 69%) of patients with depression present with somatic symptoms [3]. J Affect Disord. Psychiatric morbidity in primary care was estimated in 1995 around 30-46% of the visiting patients [17]. Depression is a mental illness that causes persistent low mood and a sense of despair in the suffering person [1]. Cronbach’s alpha between PHQ-2 and PHQ-9 was 0.641 and on standardized items (2) was 0.882 (Figure 1). Of these, 9% had moderate depression, 9% had moderately severe depression, and 6% had … PubMed Central  Chisholm D, Sanderson K, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Saxena S: Reducing the global burden of depression Population-level analysis of intervention cost-effectiveness in 14 world regions. This is a conservative estimate. A significant relationship between depression and female gender was found. Waleed Al-Qadhi. In general, mental health disorders in Saudi Arabia have a very low detection rate. Several studies have been conducted each of which looks at the rates of depression found in certain populations. 2007, 190: 36-41. “Saudi needs to be a place where people believe they can come, work and live a good life, regardless of who they are,” says Muhammad al-Ahwal, a Qatar-based psychiatrist who previously conducted research on depression rates in Saudi Arabia and now works as a clinician. PLoS One. The absentee rate was applied to a third of depressed patients assuming that only 1/3 of the population was employed. A judicious combination of regulation and educational campaigns is likely to be most successful. In the United States, depression prevalence has been reported around 9% in general population [4, 8, 9] and varying between 5-13% among adult patients visiting primary care [10]. Infections usually target warm, moist, creased areas such as the armpits, groin or feet. 1996, 34 (7): 723-734. van den Berg M, Smit F, Vos T, van Baal PH: Cost-effectiveness of opportunistic screening and minimal contact psychotherapy to prevent depression in primary care patients. J Pak Med Assoc. PHQ-2 scores were correlated with PHQ-9 scores using linear regression. We are one of the best Herbal Anti Depressants Medicine Manufacturers in Saudi Arabia and we offer our herbal solutions to the world after they pass several quality parameters. 2001, 16 (9): 606-613. Google Scholar. Saudi Med J. Regression equation: PHQ-9 = 1.83 + 2.37 x PHQ-2. In retrospect not more than half a century ago, lifestyle of the majority of the population was nomadic and there was hardly any wealth. Depression is la common illness, affecting about 10% of the population. Our simplified analysis showed that the total direct cost of care for a thousand persons screened for depression in primary healthcare setting was one third million SAR/year ($85,067) (Table 4). 2004, 39 (12): 962-966. Care-givers productivity losses were applied to both the employees. 1997, 170: 473-478. The college of medicine inducted its first batch in 2008. The scores for PHQ-9 were used to determine the presence of depression and its severity depend on the following score ranges: 1–4 minimal depression, 5–9 mild, 10–14 moderate, 15–19 moderate to severe, and 20–27 severe [43]. No other significant relationships were found with other variables, although, other studies have found depression to be associated with being in a younger age group [4, 16, 18, 21], marital status specifically being divorced and widow [4, 16, 57], low monthly income [4], working status being employed [22] or losing the work [4], living in small house space [22], house owner ship and/or having chronic diseases [18]. J Am Board Fam Med. J Gen Intern Med. JAMA. These medicines are highly effective and economical in nature than conventional medicines. 2002, 59 (2): 115-123. Depression is a mental illness which causes persistent low mood, a sense of despair, and has multiple risk factors. 2008, 15 (1): 27-33. 2005, 84 (1): 1-13. Herbal medicines have been used for ages because they offer n numbers of benefits without causing any side effects. Other relevant demographic and personal data were also collected including age, gender, level of education, work status, monthly income, past medical history, social habits and place of residence. El Rufaie et al., noted a 17% prevalence of depression among residents of Dammam [20]. In Riyadh, the same pattern has emerged. Mental health services are still not recognized as a pressing need of the time in Saudi society. PSS: Perceived Stress Scale. Barring people with either Israeli passports or Israeli stamps in their passport from visiting Saudi Arabia, has been a long-established practice. Cookies policy. Pak J Med Sci. Arab J Psychiatry. The female gender and higher education level were factors associated with depression. Health Services/Technology Assessment Text. A cross sectional study was conducted at three large primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aiming at estimating point prevalence of depression and screening cost among primary care adult patients, and comparing Patient Health Questionnaires PHQ-2 with PHQ-9. 2007, 98 (1–2): 29-43. World Family Medicine Journal. The study funded by King Abdullah International Medical Research (KAIMRC) at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) in National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA). PubMed Google Scholar. Even though most of the health care structure is dependent on the government, the delivery of organized psychiatric services is moving at a faster pace in the private sector. An expat in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia appreciates how accepting the locals were of his family and how they live their lives day to day. 2001, 179: 308-316. in 2009, found screening to be cost effective in primary care setting, only if followed by a collaborative care program [41]. have used a direct cost-offset of 20% and a similar indirect cost-differential between patients treated for depression versus the untreated [40]. Quelle est l’hygiène de vie à adopter pour prévenir la dépression ? Web Mail; Emigrant Registration Verification Portal; Dashboard Panel; Find us on: About Us. Also, SR has been involved in drafting the manuscript. Health Aff (Millwood). 2004, 328 (7443): 794-. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB: The patient health questionnaire-2: validity of a two-item depression screener. Box 11623, Riyadh 11544, Saudi Arabia c Saudi Food and Drug Authority, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia CAS  We chose the PHQ over many other modalities such as Beck Depression Inventory BDI, Rahim-Anxiety-Depression Scale RADS, and General Health Questionnaire GHQ for two reasons; Arabic version was validated by a study done on our population [24], and it had high sensitivity and specificity [4, 38]. Website Designed & SEO By Webclick Digital Pvt. J Clin Psychiatry. Ltd. is one of the trusted manufacturers of Herbal Anti Depressants Medicine in Saudi Arabia. Programs for screening depression should be implemented in primary care settings. The Saudi regulatory authority could adopt several approaches, to stimulate both pharmacists’ and public awareness. Privacy Mishler EG: The Discourse of Medicine: Dialectics of Medical Interviews. By the year 2020 depression would be the second major cause of disability adjusted life years lost, as reported by the World Health Organization. Simon GE, VonKorff M: Recognition, management, and outcomes of depression in primary care. medications registered for use in the Saudi Arabia b. medications available for free sale in USA, UK, Canada, or. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Not just in Saudi Arabia, studies in other countries show that primary care physicians fail to recognize depressive symptoms in 30-50% of patients with depression [27]. On the financial and cost aspect, Barrett et al., in 2005 found that there is no evidence that screening in primary care populations is a cost effective strategy [39]. Whooley et al. Abdul Wahid et al. Majority of the cases were mild to moderate cases. Bank TW: Countries and Economies. Moreover, these medicines guarantee natural healing and strength in the immune system. This finding is similar to that reported by Al Ibrahim et al., in their systematic review in 2010 [19]. PubMed Central  Andersen I, Thielen K, Bech P, Nygaard E, Diderichsen F: Increasing prevalence of depression from 2000 to 2006. 2013, Saudi Arabia: The World Bank Group, Available from: et al. In addition, percentages related to depressive symptoms from the current study were included for cost-analysis. Valenstein et al. PubMed  Spitzer R, Williams J, Kroenke K: Patient health questionnair (PHQ) screeners. BetterMedicine. CAS  Br J Psychiatry. Gender and higher level of education were found to be significantly associated with screened depression. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine (July 2017) Vol.68, Page 974-981 received:8/4/2017 479 Accepted:16/4/2017 DOI: 10.12816/0038197 Depression among Medical Students in Saudi Arabia Najeeb saleh alsalameh 1, Adnan khalifah alkhalifah , Najat kreem alkhaldi2, Alsafa abdulaziz alkulaib3 Qassim university college of medicine1 Corresponding author : Najeeb saleh alsalameh … in 2011, calculated that screening for depression is cost effective around 80%, even for sub threshold depression, to prevent major depression [31]. 2003, 41 (11): 1284-1292. AlFaisal University is a private non-profit institute set up under the patronage of King Faisal Foundation. At present nearly half of lost productivity in the United States is attributable to depression, an estimated $17 billion annual loss [9, 25].

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